Professor Ary Hoffmann has investigated how natural populations evolve in response to environmental stresses, using Drosophila as a model system and applying the same approach to Trichogramma parasitoids and pest organisms. His work has led to major advances in understanding how stressful periods influence evolutionary rates, and how insects adapt to overcome stressful conditions. . He has made seminal contributions to the study of Wolbachia endosymbionts in insects including the discovery of Wolbachia infections in Drosophila, enabling the development of Drosophila as a model system for understanding the population dynamics of Wolbachia. Professor Hoffmann is regarded as a leader in evolutionary biology and the applications of evolutionary principles to applied problems.