John Robert Booker 1942-1998

Written by J.P. Carter, H.G. Poulos and R.I. Tanner

Introduction

Professor John Robert Booker died in Concord Hospital in Sydney on the 13 January, 1998, after a long and courageously fought battle against cancer. His death cut short a brilliant academic career and deprived the Australian geotechnical and engineering mechanics communities of one of its most eminent members.

At the time of his death John Booker held a personal chair in engineering mechanics in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Sydney, and he was widely regarded as one of the finest researchers of his generation working in the field of theoretical geomechanics. His long battle with cancer did not deflect him from his life's work. While understandably, he was unable to hold formal classes during the last months of his life, it is significant that he was active in research until his very last weeks, such was his love for and dedication to his work.

John Booker was a warm, friendly, caring man who touched many lives. He was mentor to most with whom he came into close contact, students and colleagues alike. He is survived by his second wife Elizabeth, daughters from his first marriage, Katie and Lucie, sister Judith and mother Joan.

Early years and influences

John Booker was born at Crown Street Hospital in Sydney on the 24 July, 1942. His mother was Beryl Joan Booker (née Nagle) and his father was Jack Edgar Booker, an accountant and teacher. John had a younger sister Judith, who was born in 1950.

John Booker spent his early life in Sydney and it was clear from the memories he often recounted that his was a very happy childhood. He attended Chatswood Primary School until the family moved to Wollongong in 1952. There he became a student at Wollongong High School, where his exceptional talent and flair for mathematics blossomed. He achieved one of the top passes in the New South Wales Leaving Certificate in 1959.

In 1960 John Booker entered the University of Sydney and, as he often liked to say, he never left it. He arrived at the university armed with a cadetship from the New South Wales Department of Main Roads (DMR). His initial aim was to graduate with a degree in civil engineering, but this was later modified due largely to his abiding interest in mathematics, and instead he completed an Honours degree in science, majoring in mathematics.

One of the people who had a very important influence on John Booker early in his career was Austen Keane, who was later to become the foundation Professor of Mathematics at the University of Wollongong. Austen Keane had taught for a time at the Wollongong Technical College where he was a colleague of Jack Booker, John's father.

When John Booker began his studies at Sydney University he was in residence at St John's College. Unfortunately he failed his second year of the Engineering degree and had to repeat it. This was devastating for John, and when his cadetship was suspended whilst he repeated the year, he was forced by financial constraints to relinquish his place at St John's. This proved a very 'black' time for John and for a while he had difficulty coming to terms with this temporary setback. Austen Keane was by now on staff at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney. John's father appealed to Austen to help John through this time and, in response, Austen took John 'under his wing'. At that time John had been boarding some distance from the University and found his working conditions less than satisfactory. Austen suggested John move in with Austen's mother.

This was a crucial move for John and his friendship with Austen Keane developed on a new plane. No longer the son of a colleague, he became a valued friend, and Austen offered him a different view of himself as well as practical help in becoming his own person. Although he lived with Austen's mother he spent much of his leisure time with Austen and Lorna Keane. Austen used to refer to John affectionately as 'The Claret Kid'. John would frequently arrive on their doorstop for a meal with a bottle of claret under his arm. He and John used to mull over a bottle (sometimes more than one) discussing life, death and the universe. Austen's enormous intelligence and devastating wit had a profound effect on John. His affable humour allowed John to reflect gently on himself and his direction in life. Austen made it comfortable for John to deviate from the very practical and applied direction to which the cadetship with the DMR had been directing him. John was inspired by Austen's passion for mathematics. He succeeded brilliantly in the repeated academic year and made the crucial decision to pursue Mathematics.

Following success in his undergraduate Science degree, John Booker began some part-time tutoring work for Austen at UNSW. He continued this when Austen moved to the University of Wollongong, travelling weekly to Wollongong in his beloved Volkswagen car. John's feet were firmly planted on an academic path by now and, when decisions needed to be made about his future direction, John would seek the wise counsel of Austen Keane.

It is clear that Austen Keane had an enormous capacity to nurture people and to inspire in others the desire to excel. He encouraged them to take risks and never doubted in their ability to persevere and overcome difficulties. Austen was a seminal influence on John Booker both professionally and personally. His enormously incisive wit resonated with John, and they were formidable practitioners who sparred mentally and verbally. Austen also taught John to be very accepting and non-judgmental of people.

With Austen Keane's encouragement, applied mathematics became John Booker's major academic interest. After he graduated in Science he made another crucial decision to return to his first choice, Engineering, not to complete an undergraduate degree, but to apply his mathematical skills in research. By then he knew that academic research was what he loved best, what he wanted to do most, and where he could have greatest effect.

By a happy coincidence, the late Professor Edward (Ted) Davis FAA was working in Civil Engineering at the University of Sydney at that time (1965), and John became Ted's PhD student. Thus began a very fruitful research career, the outcomes of which have been far reaching in the fields of soil mechanics, foundation engineering and environmental geomechanics. Ted recommended John should work in the field of plasticity theory as applied to the mechanical behaviour of soils, and this led to a life-long interest in the solution of problems in engineering plasticity.

John Booker was awarded a PhD in 1970 for his dissertation entitled 'Applications of Theories of Plasticity for Cohesive Frictional Soils'. The PhD work was a source of some pride to John's colleagues, and to Ted Davis in particular. Ted was known to express as much, particularly the fact that John had managed to obtain rigorous solutions to problems that until that time had eluded more illustrious workers in the field of plasticity. Having completed a major treatise on plasticity, John would return to this field to make further contributions on numerous occasions during his research career.

For a period in 1969 and 1970, coinciding with the end of John Booker's PhD studies and the beginning of his term as a Research Fellow, Professor R. E. (Bob) Gibson of Kings' College, London, was on sabbatical leave in the School of Civil Engineering at the University of Sydney. He and John immediately struck up a friendship, which remained close until John's death. They corresponded regularly, and as both were blessed with formidable mathematical skills, they helped each other in the solution of many problems in engineering mathematics. Curiously, this association never led to a joint publication, but there can be no doubt that the mutual influence was strong. In particular, John Booker acknowledged that he had learned from Gibson the merits of being a 'true primitive' in his own research.

Academic career at the University of Sydney

After completing his PhD in late 1969, John Booker was appointed until February 1971 as Research Fellow and then from February until the end of 1971 as a temporary Lecturer in Civil Engineering at the University of Sydney. These first academic appointments were funded by the Civil Engineering Post-Graduate Foundation of the university, an organisation with a fine record of sponsoring the introduction of bright young civil engineers into academia at Sydney University.

In 1972 John Booker was invited to join the permanent staff of the Department where he moved quickly through the academic ranks. He was promoted to Senior Lecturer in 1975, then Reader in 1978, and subsequently he was appointed to a personal chair in Engineering Mechanics in 1985. As well as appointments at the University of Sydney, he was also a Senior Fulbright Scholar at the University of California at Berkeley (1976), and he held Visiting Research Fellowships at Kings' College London (1976), Cambridge University (1979, 1983) and the University of Western Ontario (1984).

From 1989-1994, John Booker served as Head of the School of Civil and Mining Engineering at the University of Sydney, and from 1990 he was Pro-Dean of the Faculty of Engineering. He was always a very good judge of people, a skilled and thoughtful administrator, and a shrewd predictor of the likely outcomes of actions and decisions, particularly and obviously those taken by him but also those beyond his direct control. His advice was often sought. These qualities combined with his friendly unassuming nature meant that he was a very popular academic leader, within his own department as well as in the wider university community. Indeed, he was invited to stand on a variety of important committees at the University of Sydney, including its Policy Advisory Committee, Research Committee, and numerous Central Promotions Committees. His work for the Research Committee was widely regarded as outstanding. He served the academic community unselfishly for many years, bringing fairness, important insight, great commonsense and an infectious sense of humour to all such activities. Until just before his death, John Booker was chair of one of the Engineering Panels of the Australian Research Council.

Research achievements

Geotechnical Engineering practice has traditionally been empirical in nature and has relied on relatively simplistic and unsophisticated analysis. Over the second half of the twentieth century considerable extension in the concept and scale of geotechnical works occurred, and this was accompanied by a growing realisation that, in many projects under consideration, the limits of applicability of the traditional methods were being approached rapidly and in some cases, surpassed. Consequently there was a movement to place geomechanics on a sound scientific basis, both to assess more rigorously the range of validity of traditional approaches, and to develop new methods of analysis capable of dealing with proposed new developments. John Booker played an important role and made notable contributions in the development of this more soundly based scientific approach.

It was Booker's extraordinary skill in devising rigorous theoretical solutions to many important but difficult practical problems that set him apart from most other researchers in his field, and also provided the theoretical underpinning to the research of the geotechnical group at the University of Sydney for many years. His solutions to these problems were both elegant and accessible and are in widespread use in engineering practice today.

Booker's research was primarily concerned with the time-dependent and inelastic response of soil and rock in so far as it affected engineering structures, engineering works and the environment. His research was characterised by a careful selection of topic with the aim of advancing both the science and the art of the subject, and was distinguished by both a great rigor of thought and a great clarity of exposition.

During his career, John Booker produced a large body of important published research in almost 250 technical papers. His output in a shortened lifetime was more than many top academics in his field produce in much longer careers. He authored and co-authored many seminal papers in the fields of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, foundation engineering and environmental geotechnics. His specific research interests included:

  • applications of plasticity theory to stability problems in geomechanics;
  • analysis of soil-structure interaction;
  • time-dependent problems in soil including consolidation and creep;
  • predictions of the thermomechanical behaviour of soil and rock; and
  • analysis of pollution migration through groundwater.

He was a co-author, with R. K. Rowe and R. M. Quigley of the influential textbook Clayey Barrier Systems for Waste Disposal Facilities. He was awarded a higher doctorate in Engineering in 1983 by the University of Sydney for his 'Selected Papers on Analytic Geomechanics'.

Developments and applications in plasticity theory

Booker's early research work was concerned with the application of the mathematical theory of plasticity to problems of soil stability. As indicated, he was originally encouraged to research problems in plasticity theory by his PhD supervisor, Professor Ted Davis. While they engaged his full attention during the early part of his research career, he returned to the topic to make contributions on numerous other occasions, finding the challenge of solving problems in plasticity a great fascination.

Some of his early work in this field is primarily of a theoretical nature, such as the fundamental study of the plasticity of a perfectly plastic anisotropic solid (5), which is a basic reference in this area and predates the studies of both Rice and Hill into this problem. It is interesting to note that this highly theoretical work has found a subsequent and important practical application in the study of the bearing capacity of fissured clay and rocks (174), another fundamental problem Booker revisited towards the end of his foreshortened career (220, 242).

In this early period, during the 1970s, Booker and Davis tackled some of the difficult problems in the field and together they produced a number of definitive papers. At that time the few rigorous studies of soil stability that existed were restricted to homogeneous soils. This was an unduly restrictive assumption and meant, for instance, that it was not possible to analyse effectively the behaviour of offshore structures, which are often founded on soils the strength of which increases approximately linearly with depth from a relatively low value at the mud-line. There had been some previous investigations of such materials using approximate engineering methods (for example, limiting equilibrium techniques such as the slip circle method), but it had not been demonstrated that such methods were adequate for structures of the type and scale envisaged at that time. There was a need for a more rigorous approach based on a sound theory. This was provided in two fundamental papers (4, 14). These papers were important for several reasons. They contained the useful and elegant result of demonstrating that the failure pressure that can be applied at the mud-line increases linearly from a value of zero at the edge of the loaded region at precisely the same rate as the soil strength increases with depth. They also supplied the key results necessary for estimation of the safety factor of offshore gravity platforms. Perhaps more importantly, these papers established for the first time that there were situations where conventional engineering approaches, such as the slip circle method, yielded results which were unacceptable engineering approximations (for example, an overestimate of approximately 450% in bearing pressure, in the worst case).

Booker's early work in the theory of plasticity was acknowledged by an invitation to contribute a paper to the prestigious Symposium on the Role of Plasticity in Soil Mechanics at Cambridge (12). After this time, the emphasis of his work changed from classical plasticity to a concern with time-dependent and load-path-dependent phenomena. Nevertheless, he continued to make significant and innovative contributions, as previously indicated. Other examples of his attraction to problems in this field, and his fondness for returning to them from time to time, include his application of shakedown analysis to the design of road pavements (85), and the development of the exact solution to the problem of the expansion of cylindrical and spherical cavities in cohesive frictional soils (129), which has application in the theory of ultimate capacity of deep foundations.

Time-dependent soil behaviour and soil-structure interaction

Saturated soil is a two-phase material consisting of a solid skeleton and water-filled voids. When a load is applied to a soil, the water pressure in the pores in the vicinity of the load is increased, which subsequently dissipates as pore water flows from regions of higher excess pore pressure to regions of lower excess pore pressure. The soil subsequently deforms or consolidates with time. The analysis of this time-dependent behaviour and its effect on engineering structures is one of great practical importance and poses some of the most interesting and challenging problems of geomechanics, since it combines the difficulties of a boundary-value problem in the theory of elasticity or elastoplasticity with the complexities of a diffusion process. Throughout his career, John Booker made sustained and significant contributions in this area.

Some of these contributions were primarily analytic in nature. Booker is credited with the solution of a number of the classic problems. For example, he developed the solution for the time-settlement behaviour of a surface footing resting on a layer of finite depth that overlaid rigid bedrock (15). Prior to this study, the only rigorous solutions available were those relating to very deep layers (a half-space), or those which assumed the somewhat artificial condition of a perfectly smooth interface between consolidating soil and bed-rock. He was also the first to develop analytic solutions that took into account the anisotropic behaviour of both the deformation and flow properties (89). Other important solutions were those developed for consolidation around both lined and unlined tunnels (70, 87). These investigations were of intrinsic interest in their own right, as well as having direct application to the interpretation of bore-hole testing.

Booker also conducted important investigations into interaction between structures and a consolidating soil. His 1975 paper with Chiarella investigating the behaviour of a rigid footing certainly represents the first such analysis (21). The results were further extended to account for the flexibility of the foundation (107), and the possible impermeability of the foundation (122). These investigations involve the solution of rather difficult mixed-boundary value problems and are not amenable to a purely analytic approach. In many ways they carry the hallmark of Booker's approach: a careful idealisation of a significant engineering problem, made in such a way that the problem remains tractable without losing practical significance, followed by a careful analytic investigation culminating in innovative numerical analysis. These investigations were not restricted to conventional surface footings. For example, Booker and Poulos (27) investigated the creep behaviour of piles. This paper represented the first satisfactory analysis of this important practical problem that elucidates the effect of sustained or non-terminating creep, and its effect on the design life of such structures. Other results of practical importance are related to an examination of the generation and dissipation of pore pressure during cyclic loading. For example, Seed and Booker (37) established that gravel drains can be used to dissipate pore pressures that are generated during earthquakes and thus to stabilise loose sand deposits that might otherwise liquefy during earthquakes. This method was used subsequently to stabilise a number of sites in the United States and elsewhere.

A similar appreciation of the mitigating effects of pore pressure dissipation was applied in the investigation of storm loading on offshore structures (40). This investigation established that the then current design practice which assumed undrained conditions (no pore pressure dissipation for the duration of the storm) was unduly conservative, and it is interesting to remark that the computer program GADFLEA developed during this investigation is still used in engineering practice for the analysis of offshore gravity structures.

Booker was always conscious of the fact that although analytic and semi-analytic methods can be used to gain great insight into the relative importance of various effects in engineering behaviour, many investigations must be site- or project-specific, and that consequently it is necessary to develop effective numerical and computer techniques for their solution. He made notable contributions in this area. One important contribution was the development of the criterion for the stability of 'forward marching methods', in the finite element integration of Biot's equations of consolidation (22). This is a key paper in which he and Small not only established theoretically important variational principles, but established that certain integration strategies were unconditionally stable. This finding removed the necessity of the previously adopted and unsatisfactory practice of investigating each particular case by trial and error. This work has contributed either directly or implicitly to all subsequent investigations of the finite-element analysis of the consolidation process.

Another important contribution to the analysis of consolidation of elastoplastic media was provided by Small, Booker and Davis (29). Until that time, consideration of the short-term stability, the long-term stability and the time-settlement behaviour of foundations had been treated completely separately. Such a procedure was clearly artificial and neglected the possibility of important time-dependent effects occurring during the construction process and the possibility of plastic-yielding occurring subsequent to construction. Small, Booker and Davis made the breakthrough of being able to incorporate non-linearity and inelasticity into an analysis that also accounted for pore pressure redistribution and dissipation, and so provided a unified approach that was able to approximate closely the real construction path.

Finite layer methods

There are circumstances, such as in preliminary or low budget investigations, where there is considerable uncertainty about site conditions or the likely range of material properties or behaviour. In such cases it is not feasible, or desirable, to conduct a full non-linear three-dimensional finite-element analysis. It is however important to provide engineers with efficient methods of analysis which can deal with relatively simple geometries and material behaviour, thus enabling them to explore a number of design options rapidly.

John Booker played an important role in the development of finite layer methods. These methods are particularly suited to the analysis of the important practical case of a horizontally-layered deposit consisting of a number of different soil layers, which can be adequately characterised as having linear (but possibly time-dependent) behaviour. The finite layer method represents a development of the finite strip techniques of structural mechanics. These latter methods, in their simplest form, had been based on the use of a Fourier series that automatically satisfied certain of the structural boundary conditions. It was found that the Fourier modes uncoupled and hence could be determined individually, thus reducing dramatically the dimensionality of the problem.

Booker realised that such methods could be applied to layered soils subjected to loads spaced periodically on the surface, and also saw that this restriction on the loading form could be overcome easily by representing the field quantities as Fourier integrals. He also saw that it was possible to introduce a 'time marching' scheme, so that the method could be used to analyse the time-dependent settlement behaviour of foundations on layered deposits (44).

The finite layer method was generalised to take into account three-dimensional loading conditions by using repeated Fourier transforms, or Hankel transforms in the axi-symmetric case (76, 77). The methods developed during this period have been incorporated into a number of computer programs (FLEA and FLAC), which are now widely used in the design of surface foundations and pavements.

An interesting adaptation of this approach is one in which the variation of modulus throughout each layer is approximated, by assuming that the modulus varies exponentially with depth within each layer, rather than making the usual assumption that it is uniform. This approach has been found to be much more efficient in dealing with crusted deposits and has been used to provide a definitive parametric study of these difficult and complex materials (61, 62).

Environmental geomechanics

Booker made numerous contributions in the field of environmental geomechanics and geotechnics. It was a field of investigation that held his interest for at least the last twenty years of his life. His theoretical work made possible the solution of a number of major problems in the design of environmentally sensitive engineering ground works. Examples include the investigation of schemes for the disposal of radioactive waste, the development of analytical and numerical methods for the design of containment systems, and the development of solutions that aid understanding of schemes proposed for the remediation of contaminated soil and rock sites. Some examples of his contributions are described as follows.

One option that has been suggested for the disposal of radioactive waste is burial offshore in parts of the sea floor that are remote from strong ocean currents and remote from tectonic movement. Serious concerns have been expressed about the feasibility of such schemes, for a variety of reasons. One such concern arose because it was thought that when the water saturating the marine sediments was heated by the decaying radioactive waste it would expand at a far greater rate than the solid soil skeleton, and this expansion of the pore water could lead to fracturing of the soil, thus damaging the integrity of the geological barrier, to allow the possibility of radionuclide migration into the biosphere.

Booker was able to develop a relatively simple theory of thermally-driven consolidation that took into account the dominant physical phenomena (the difference of coefficients of expansion of the pore water and the soil skeleton). He then developed a simple analytic solution for the pore pressure generation and dissipation that occurs around a rigid spherical heat source buried deep below the surface of a saturated porous thermoelastic soil (90). This solution was most revealing. It showed that, although the increase in temperature in the soil surrounding the heat source caused the pore pressure to rise and thus created the potential for fissuring, there was an accompanying process of flow of water from regions of high water pressure to regions of low water pressure. This water flow caused the thermally-generated pore pressures to dissipate and thus acted to mitigate the severity of the effect. Once the feasibility of the process had been established, Booker went on to develop an effective numerical method for the investigation of specific cases. This was carried out on two fronts, firstly by development of a finite element approach which allowed non-linear and inelastic aspects of the problem to be investigated (158, 203, 209), and secondly by the development of a boundary element analysis which enabled the analysis of complex configurations for linear materials to be carried out (161, 174).

As indicated previously, Booker was also actively concerned in the investigation of contaminant migration from waste repositories into the groundwater. A significant portion of this work, particularly his earlier achievements in this field, was the result of very fruitful collaboration with Professor R. Kerry Rowe, then of the University of Western Ontario. This particular association had continued from the mid-1970s, when Rowe was a PhD student in civil engineering at the University of Sydney. A characteristic of these investigations into contaminant migration is always the great degree of uncertainty that exists with respect to physical data. There is uncertainty about the precise nature of the leachate in any landfill and about the type and distribution of the underlying soils. There is also uncertainty with the selection of suitable values for their physical properties, such as the hydraulic conductivity, the diffusion coefficient, and the distribution coefficient. Design engineers require access to effective methods of analysis in order to assess the sensitivity of predicted environmental impacts to likely parameter variations.

To date, finite element packages have generally not provided the required design tool, largely due to the fact that they are usually based on 'time marching schemes'. The necessity of monitoring pollutant impact over very long periods; the fact that the tolerance levels of contaminants is often small; and the numerical dispersion that seems inevitably to accompany 'time marching' schemes have mitigated against the effectiveness of finite element techniques.

Booker was in the forefront of attempts to provide engineers with effective and efficient methods of analysis that they could use as a basis for routine rational design. His philosophy was always to model the dominant features of the problem. The majority of initial investigations of pollution migration in soil were based on the Ogata-Banks solution which predicts that, in the long term, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (which is assumed to be infinitely deep) reaches the level that existed in the landfill when it was first placed. This is obviously unrealistic, and the anomaly was overcome by developing an analysis which recognised that if a contaminant is transported from a landfill to the underlying soil, there will be an accompanying diminution of the concentration of that contaminant in the landfill (133). This analysis was subsequently generalised to provide a realistic analysis of deep waste repositories in the presence of groundwater seepage (155). Booker provided further insight into this important environmental problem by establishing, by simple analytic means, the effect of limited solubility of contaminants on pollution migration from surface landfills (174).

More generally, he realised that in many practical situations an assumption of horizontal stratification was a reasonable idealisation of the site. This observation enabled him to draw on the finite layer techniques that he had developed for the analysis of foundation behaviour, to develop effective semi-analytic approaches that reduced the three-dimensional pollution migration problem to a succession of one-dimensional problems (135). One important feature of these methods was that the numerical analysis was performed in the Laplace Transform domain and the solution in the physical domain was recovered by numerical inversion. This meant that there was no difficulty in dealing with extended periods of time, nor was there any spurious numerical dispersion in the results. A second feature was that these methods could be implemented in fast-running computer codes, and so provided design engineers with the basis for effective assessment of the implications in the variation of physical conditions and parameters on design and environmental impact.

Concern has also been expressed by many environmental engineers about the uncertain behaviour of landfills that overlie fissured soil and rock deposits. In a typical response, Booker was able to gain insight into the interaction between landfills and fissured soils by developing a simple model which encapsulated many of the dominant physical features, but which was simple enough to be incorporated into finite layer analyses (169). The computer program POLLUTE, developed by Rowe and Booker, has been used extensively to assess environmental impact at a number of sites (both fissured and non-fissured) around the world.

Other research contributions

One distinctive feature of Booker's research was the large amount of collaboration it involved. A glance at his list of publications is all that is required to deduce how important it was to him, as well as those whom he attracted and with whom he enjoyed working. He often remarked how he derived enormous pleasure from such productive collaboration. Yet all who worked with him recognised a distinctive pattern. It usually involved discussion of the general problem, and then a period, often as short as overnight, in which Booker would formulate the governing equations and decide how best they might be solved. The collaborator would then be presented with an elegant, concise exposition of the theory, written in John Booker's own distinctive hand, invariably with a soft pencil. These notes would often be accompanied by suggestions on how the solution might be implemented. Although on occasions he would implement and evaluate the solution himself, usually this task was left to the collaborators. He had a very well developed sense of how best he could contribute and how best to make use of the combined talents of those involved in a research project. For the many who worked with John Booker, this was not only invaluable training, it was also was a source of inspiration and pleasure.

While Booker relished the challenge of solving the 'big' problems in geotechnical engineering and mathematical physics, such as the boundary and initial value problems he tackled in plasticity theory, time-dependent soil-structure interaction and environmental geotechnics, he also took pleasure in making significant contributions in other ways. Often the need for a solution to a tricky numerical problem would be brought to his attention by a colleague, and then together they would explore the possible means for solving the dilemma. This usually led to important advances in numerical analysis. For example, he pointed out a fundamental error that many had made in the numerical analysis of excavation problems (108), and he indicated how to deal numerically with singularities in yield surface calculations (125, 184). While these may not have been major boundary value problems, they were essential steps leading to the numerical solution of some important boundary and initial value problems.

Professional contributions

John Booker embraced the idea that fundamental theory and practical engineering are symbiotically related, as both are important components for the solution of complex technological problems. While regarded as one of the pre-eminent academic researchers in civil engineering, John Booker's advice on practical engineering problems was often sought by the engineering profession. In particular, he was a regular advisor to Coffey Partners International (Coffey), a major Australian geotechnical consulting company.

Booker's work for Coffey brought him into close contact with practising engineers and a variety of important practical problems. He welcomed the opportunity to bring his formidable talents to bear on the solution of real-world problems. Many were in the field of environmental geomechanics, and some of the more notable engineering projects he worked on with Coffey are summarised as follows.

John Booker provided professional advice in relation to a wide range of contaminant transport assessments throughout Australia, involving contamination of groundwater by heavy metals, hydrocarbons and industrial chemicals. Examples include:

  • an industrial facility at Kooragang Island, NSW. Coffey carried out an assessment of potential impact of chemical waste leaching from a storage area to the Hunter River. John Booker developed the analytical method used to carry out this work and provided advice on its implementation;
  • an aluminium refinery (Tomago Aluminium refinery, NSW). Coffey carried out assessment of the impacts of a spill of chemical waste containing cyanide and ammonia on the Hunter River. Contaminated rainwater from a storage shed with a leaking roof had entered the groundwater system. Booker worked with Coffey engineers to analyse the transport and dispersion of contaminated water through the groundwater system and to design a containment system involving groundwater extraction;
  • an operating oil refinery (Caltex Kurnell refinery, NSW). Coffey carried out an assessment of hydrocarbon contamination near the boundary of an operating oil refinery. Assessment of the migration of contaminated groundwater toward nearby houses was carried out. John Booker provided the theoretical basis for numerical tools for modelling transport, dispersion and biological decay of the contamination. The results were used to assess risks to human health within the residential area potentially affected.

In addition to high level technical and theoretical input to groundwater and contaminant transport studies, Booker also provided high level advice in relation to statistical assessment of geotechnical and environmental data, assessment of dynamic wave and tide pressure loadings on coastal structures, dam design, wedge-type slope stability analysis, dewatering for major mining and civil construction projects, coal mine pillar stability and foundation design for heavily loaded earth retaining structures.

One of the more high profile and technically challenging projects he worked on was the Sydney Opera House car park. Coffey carried out geotechnical design of the rock chamber excavated to house the Opera House car park. A particularly challenging element of this design was the excavation of a wide span chamber leaving intact a relatively thin rock cover. Booker provided important input to the design of the roof support measures and indeed established an original method of roof analysis, which was subsequently adopted for the design of coal mine roof support systems.

He also worked on a major project in Hong Kong, relating to the effects of cavities in limestone on foundation performance. For this project John Booker developed an elegantly simple closed form solution that assisted engineers to compute the additional settlement arising from the presence of the cavities.

What most characterised his professional engineering work was also a dominant feature of his academic research. John Booker had a unique ability to develop and implement useful theoretical approaches that addressed the essential elements of engineering problems. He had an uncanny ability to recognise early the most significant factors and to discard those of lesser importance. He could be both engineer and mathematician.

Aside from his consulting assignments, John Booker also made many other professional contributions. From 1977 until his death, he was a member of the Advisory Board for International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, and in 1987 he was appointed as an Associate Editor. From 1983 he was a member of the Australian National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and a member of the International Committee for Numerical Methods in Geomechanics. From 1988 until his death he was Chairman of the Awards Committee, International Association for Computing Methods and Advances in Geomechanics.

Distinctions and honours

The high calibre of John Booker's research and educational work was recognised in a variety of important ways, nationally and internationally. In addition to being elected a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers Australia, he received a number of other prestigious awards and distinctions, including the Medal for Distinguished Contributions to Geomechanics awarded by the International Association of Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics in 1994, and an invitation to present the E.H. Davis Memorial Lecture to the Australian Geomechanics Society in 1995. He was invited to present the 39th Rankine Lecture to the British Geotechnical Society, which was to have been delivered in 1999, but he was unable to fulfil this singular honour because of his failing health. In recognition of his distinguished research in geomechanics, he was granted an Australian Research Council Special Investigator Award in 1995. In the same year, he was elected a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science. In 1997 John Booker was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia for his life-long services to geomechanics and education, a particular distinction that was unexpected by this private man of genuine modesty. While he felt honoured and proud to receive the awards and recognition that came to him, John Booker did not seek them, and he did not place undue importance on them. Indeed, he found little need for public affirmation.

To celebrate John Booker's many achievements and to honour his memory, the Booker Memorial Symposium was held in Sydney, Australia, on 16-17 November, 2000. The Memorial Volume contains a record of the papers presented at the symposium [1]. Those who knew and respected John Booker were invited to pay tribute to his remarkable contributions in geomechanics in a way that he would have most appreciated, by high-quality engineering research. The symposium itself was relaxed and informal, friendly and convivial, reflecting some of the qualities that many came to know and love in the man himself. It presented an opportunity for the participants to pause and reflect together on the richness of John Booker's life: his love of family, his brilliant research, his generosity of spirit, his forbearance in adversity, his love of the arts, his support for the disadvantaged, his friendship and his wit.

A caring man

All who came into close contact with him acknowledged John Booker as a wonderful friend and colleague. He always supported and encouraged his students and his colleagues, not only in their professional careers but also in their personal lives. In many ways he provided a model for mentoring and for caring. For the last few years of his life he was a committee member of the Colostomy Association in NSW, providing support for others and helping them with their own difficult experiences. All this, while he himself was battling with cancer.

John Booker's kind and gentle approach to all people could be seen very clearly in his role as a father. He never seemed to instruct his children, he simply set the example by his own behaviour and attitudes. He impressed his colleagues by his amazing productivity, while also finding so much time for the family he loved so dearly. His academic and personal lives appeared seamlessly interconnected, although it was clear that John always placed his family first. As well as family and work, John Booker was also a great lover of literature, classical music and opera. All who had contact with him will remember that John possessed a wonderfully wicked wit. His dry, punchy, 'one liner' jokes were often on him, and always the message in the humour was not to take oneself too seriously.

John Booker was a most reasonable man who possessed an ever-even temper. He was simply imperturbable and unselfish. Many can attest to the generous way in which he would always give willingly of his time and effort, regardless of any other pressures that were on him. He had the strength of character not to change the course of his life when diagnosed with cancer. This was because he already knew what was important to him – friends and family, research and scholarship. Because he led a simple and honest life, he had no need to rearrange it when death was close by. As John Booker was facing his own death, it seems he drew on the model of his remarkable friend from earlier in his life, Austen Keane. John saw Austen shortly before Austen's death and remarked on his courage in dealing with his loss of function as a result of a stroke. He also noted Austen's serenity at this difficult time. Some have described John Booker as a Stoic transported to another age, and this was never more evident than at the end of his own life. In his last days he remarked that he would simply like to be remembered as a kind man. His wish was never in doubt.

John Booker has left an amazingly rich legacy to geotechnical engineering and to academia. The large number of his former students who are now in academic and high-level positions, both in Australia and abroad, is testament to his legacy. He and his work have had a tremendous influence on the education and development of a large number of individuals, many of whom continue to spread John Booker's philosophy and approach.

About this memoir

This memoir was originally published in Historical Records of Australian Science, vol.14, no.2, 2002. It was written by:

  • J.P. Carter, Challis Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney
  • H.G. Poulos, AM, FAA, FTSE, Coffey Geosciences Pty Ltd; Emeritus Professor, University of Sydney, and
  • R.I. Tanner, FAA, FTSE, FRS, Peter Nicol Russell Professor, University of Sydney.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge the members of John Booker's family and his numerous colleagues and friends who provided information, and in some cases even suggested passages of text, for this memoir. Some also read and provided useful comments on its early drafts. They include Ross Best, who collaborated closely with John Booker on his consulting work for Coffey Partners International; Professor Jim Hill who provided details of John Booker's association with Professor Austen Keane; Dr David Smith who made a number of valuable suggestions and additions that were all incorporated in the final manuscript; and Professors Mark Randolph, Kerry Rowe and John Small, and Dr Nigel Ballam, each of whom provided valuable comments on and direct and indirect input to this memoir. Judith Joukador, John Booker's sister, also provided valuable factual information, comment and insight into Austen Keane's influence on the young John Booker. Much of her comment has been repeated here almost verbatim, and permission to include it is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. D.W. Smith and J.P. Carter (eds), 'Developments in Theoretical Geomechanics', in Proceedings of the John Booker Memorial Symposium, Sydney 2000, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000), p. 761.

Bibliography

  1. N.S. Trahair and J.R. Booker, 'Optimum elastic columns', International Journal of Mechanical Science, 12 (1970), 973-983.
  2. J.R. Booker and S. Kitipornchai, 'Torsion of multi-layered rectangular section', Journal of Engineering Mechanics ASCE 97, EM5 (1971), 1451-1468.
  3. E.H. Davis and J.R. Booker, 'The bearing capacity of strip footings from the standpoint of plasticity theory', in Proceedings of the 1st Australian-New Zealand Conference in Geomechanics, 1 (1971), p. 276.
  4. J.R. Booker and E.H. Davis, 'A note on a plasticity solution to the stability of slopes in inhomogeneous clays', Géotechnique, 22 (1972), 509-513.
  5. J.R. Booker and E.H. Davis, 'A general treatment of plastic anisotropy under conditions of plane strain', Journal of Mechanical Physical Solids, 20 (1972), 239-250.
  6. J.R. Booker, 'A method of integration for the equations of plasticity of a weightless cohesive frictional material', Quarterly Journal of Mechanical Applied Mathematics, 24(1) (1972), 63-82.
  7. H.G. Poulos, J.R. Booker and G.J. Ring, 'Simplified calculation of embankment deformations', Soils Foundations, 12(4) (1972), 1-17.
  8. J.R. Booker, B.S. Frankham and N.S. Trahair, 'Stability of visco-elastic structural members', in Proceedings of the 4th Australian Conference on Mechanical Structural Material, Brisbane, Australia (1973), pp. 34-40.
  9. D.Campbell-Allen, J.G. Kass and J.R. Booker, 'Size effects in drying and shrinkage of concrete', Rilem, 6(32) (1973), 151-152.
  10. J.R. Booker, 'A method of solution for the creep buckling of structural members of a linear visco-elastic material', Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 7(2) (1973), 101-113.
  11. J.R. Booker, 'A numerical method for the solution of Biot's consolidation theory', Quarterly Journal of Mechanical Applied Mathematics, 26(4) (1973), 457-470.
  12. E.H. Davis and J.R. Booker, 'Some adaptations of classical plasticity theory for soil stability problems', Symposium on the Role of Plasticity in Soil Mechanics, Cambridge, UK, (1973), pp. 24-41.
  13. J.R. Booker, 'The finite element solution of consolidation problems using the Laplace transform', in Proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Soil Mechanic Foundations, Moscow, USSR, (1973), p. 3.
  14. E.H. Davis and J.R. Booker, 'The effect of increasing strength with depth on the bearing capacity of clays', Géotechnique, 23(4) (1973), 551-563.
  15. J.R. Booker, 'The consolidation of a finite layer subject to surface loading', International Journal of Solid Structures, 10 (1974), 1053-1065.
  16. J.R. Booker, B.S. Frankham and N.S. Trahair, 'Stability of visco-elastic structural members', Transactions of the Institution of Engineers Australia, CEI6(1) (1974), 45-51.
  17. E.H. Davis, G.J. Ring and J.R. Booker, 'The significance of the rate of plastic work in elasto-plastic analysis', in Proceedings of the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Sydney, Australia, (1974), pp. 327-335.
  18. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The numerical solution of visco-elastic problems using Laplace transforms', in Proceedings of the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Sydney, Australia, (1974), pp. 315-326.
  19. J.R. Booker and H.G. Poulos, 'Embankment deformations due to water loads', Geotechnical Engineering, 5(2) (1974), 73-87.
  20. E.H. Davis and J.R. Booker, 'Application of plasticity theory to foundations', in Proceedings of the Symposium on Recent Developments in Soil Mechanics, Sydney, Australia, eds. S. Valliappan, S. Hain and I. K. Lee, (1975), pp. 83-112.
  21. C. Chiarella and J.R. Booker, 'The time-settlement behaviour of a rigid die resting on a deep clay layer', Quarterly Journal of Mechanical Applied Mathematics, 28(3) (1975), 317-328.
  22. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'An investigation of the stability of numerical solutions of Biot's equations of consolidation', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 11 (1975), 907-917.
  23. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The economical solution of elastic problems for a range of Poisson's ratio', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 9 (1975), 847-853.
  24. J.P. Carter, H.G. Poulos and J.R. Booker, 'Effect of seepage on embankment deformations due to water loading', in Proceedings of the 2nd Australian-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Brisbane, Australia, (1975), 159-163.
  25. N.P. Balaam, H.G. Poulos and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of the effects of installation on pile load-settlement behaviour', Geotechnical Engineering, 6(1) (1975), 33-48.
  26. J.R. Booker, J.P. Carter and J.C. Small, 'An efficient method of analysis for the drained and undrained behaviour of an elastic soil', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 12 (1975), 589-599.
  27. J.R. Booker and H.G. Poulos, 'Finite element analysis of piles in a viscoelastic soil', in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Virginia, USA, (1976), pp. 425-437.
  28. J.R. Booker and H.G. Poulos, 'Analysis of creep settlement of pile foundations', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Division of ASCE, 102(GT1) (1976), 1-14.
  29. J.C. Small, J.R. Booker and E.H. Davis, 'Elastoplastic consolidation of soil', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 12 (1976), 431-448.
  30. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite element analysis of primary and secondary consolidation using Laplace transforms', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Adelaide, The University of Adelaide, Australia, (1976), pp. 32.1-32.19.
  31. P.T. Brown and J.R. Brown, 'Numerical solution of rafts on visco-elastic media using Laplace transforms', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Adelaide, The University of Adelaide, Australia, (1976), pp. 27.1-27.19.
  32. N.P. Balaam, J.R. Booker and H.G. Poulos, 'Analysis of granular pile behaviour using finite elements', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Adelaide, The University of Adelaide, Australia, (1976), pp. 29.1-29.13.
  33. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite element analysis of primary and secondary consolidation', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 13 (1977), 137-149.
  34. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and E.H. Davis, 'Finite deformation of an elasto-plastic soil', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 1 (1977), 25-43.
  35. J.M. Duncan, Y. Ozawa, P.V. Lade and J.R. Booker, 'An elasto-plastic stress-strain relationship for cohesionless soils', in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Soil Mechanical Foundation Engineering, Tokyo, Japan, (1977), pp. 45-50.
  36. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Methods for the numerical solution of the equations of viscoelasticity', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 1 (1977), 139-150.
  37. H.B. Seed and J.R. Booker, 'Stabilization of potentially liquefiable sand deposits using gravel drains', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Division of ASCE, 103(GT7) (1977), 757-768.
  38. J.P. Carter, J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'A theory of finite elastic consolidation', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 13 (1977), 467-478.
  39. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'An investigation of the stability of numerical solutions of the equations of viscoelasticity', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 11 (1977), 1819-1830.
  40. M.S. Rahman, H.B. Seed, and J.R. Booker, 'Pore pressure development under offshore gravity structures', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Division of ASCE, 103(GT12) (1977), 1419-1436.
  41. J.R. Booker, 'A theorem for limiting lines in a perfectly plastic material', Archives of Mechanics, 29(1) (1977), 187-191.
  42. J.R. Booker and E.H. Davis, 'Stability analysis by plasticity theory', in Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, eds. C.S. Desai and J.T. Christian (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977), pp. 719-748.
  43. R.K. Rowe, J.R. Booker and N.P. Balaam, 'Application of the initial stress method to soil-structure interaction', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 12 (1978), 873-880.
  44. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite element analysis of the consolidation of layered soils', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Australian Finite Element Methods, (1979), pp. 485-500.
  45. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'A method of analysis for horizontally embedded anchors in an elastic soil', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 3 (1979), 187-203.
  46. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The analysis of finite elasto-plastic consolidation', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 3 (1979), 107-129.
  47. P.T. Brown and J.R. Booker, 'Numerical analysis of rafts on visco-elastic media using eigenvector expansions', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 3 (1979), 63-78.
  48. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of the consolidation of layered soils using the method of lines', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Aachen, Germany, (1979), pp. 201-211.
  49. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The analysis of inclined anchor plates', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Aachen, Germany, (1979), pp. 1227-1236.
  50. J.C. Small, J.R. Booker and P.G. Redman, 'The behaviour of circular tanks on deep elastic foundations', in Proceedings of the 3rd Australian-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 2 (1980), pp. 2-215-2-219.
  51. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The elastic response of multiple underream anchors', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 4 (1980), 313-332.
  52. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and C.P. Wroth, 'The application of a critical state soil model to cyclic triaxial tests', in Proceedings of the 3rd Australian-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington , New Zealand, 2 (1980), pp. 2-121-2-126.
  53. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The analysis of multiple underream anchors', in Proceedings of the 3rd Australian-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 2 (1980), pp. 2-247-2-252.
  54. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and C.P. Wroth, 'A critical state soil model for cyclic loading', in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Soils Under Cyclic and Transient Loading, Swansea, UK (1980), pp. 433-434.
  55. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation due to lateral loading of a pile', in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Soil Mechanics Foundation Engineering, Stockholm, Sweden (1981), pp. 647-650.
  56. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The elastic displacements of single and multiple underream anchors in a Gibson soil', Géotechnique, 31(1) (1981), 125-141.
  57. J.R. Booker and R.K. Rowe, 'One-dimensional consolidation of a soil exhibiting periodic layering', in Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Mechanical Behaviour of Structured Media, Ottawa, Canada (1981), pp. 319-334.
  58. N.P. Balaam and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of rigid rafts supported by granular piles', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 5 (1981), 379-403.
  59. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite element analysis of problems with infinitely distant boundaries', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 5 (1981), 345-368.
  60. P.T. Brown and J.R. Booker, 'Numerical solution of rafts on visco-elastic media using flexibility expansions', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 17 (1981), 433-441.
  61. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The behaviour of footings on a non-homogeneous soil mass with a crust: I – strip footings', Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 18(2) (1981), 250-264.
  62. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The behaviour of footings resting on a non-homogeneous soil mass with a crust: II – circular footings', Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 18(2) (1981), 265-279.
  63. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Finite layer analysis of non-homogeneous soils', Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Division of ASCE, 108(EM1) (1982), 115-132.
  64. I.D. Moore and J.R. Booker, 'A circular boundary element for the analysis of deep underground openings', in Proceedings of the 4th lnternational Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, (1982), pp. 53-60.
  65. M.F. Randolph and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of seepage into a cylindrical permeameter', in Proceedings of the 4th lnternational Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, (1982), pp. 349-357.
  66. K.Runesson and J.R. Booker, 'Efficient finite element analysis of 3D consolidation', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, (1982), pp. 359-364.
  67. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'Finite layer analysis of primary and secondary consolidation', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, (1982), pp. 365-371.
  68. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'The analysis of consolidation and creep around a deep circular tunnel in clay', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, (1982), pp. 537-544.
  69. R.K. Rowe, J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The influence of soil non-homogeneity upon the performance of liquid storage tanks', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Edmonton, Canada, (1982), pp. 757-766.
  70. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Elastic consolidation around a deep circular tunnel', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 18(12) (1982), 1059-1074.
  71. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and H.G. Poulos, 'Finite element analysis of the creep behaviour of laterally loaded piles', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Australian Finite Element Methods, Melbourne, Australia, (1982), pp. 99-103.
  72. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and C.P. Wroth, 'A critical state soil model for cyclic loading', in Soil mechanics transient and cyclic loads, eds. G. N. Pande and O. C. Zienkiewicz, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982), pp. 219-252.
  73. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of layered elastic viscoelastic materials', in Proceedings of the 8th Australian Conference on Mechanical Structural Material, Newcastle, Australia, (1982), pp. 38.1-38.6.
  74. K.R. Runesson and J.R. Booker, 'On mixed and displacement finite element methods in perfect elasto-plasticity', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Australian Finite Element Methods, Melbourne, Australia, (1982), pp. 85-89.
  75. K.R. Runesson and J.R. Booker, 'Exact finite layer method for the plane strain consolidation of isotropic elastic layered soil', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Finite Element Methods, Peking, China, (1982), pp. 781-785.
  76. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of consolidation, part 1', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 6 (1982), 151-171.
  77. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of consolidation, part 2'. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 6 (1982), 173-194.
  78. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The analysis of liquid storage tanks on deep elastic foundations', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 7 (1983), 187-207.
  79. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation of axi-symmetric bodies subjected to non-axi-symmetric loading', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 7 (1983), 273-281.
  80. K.R. Runesson and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of elastic-plastic layered soil using discrete Fourier series expansion', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 19(12) (1983), 473-478A.
  81. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Creep and consolidation around circular openings in infinite media', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 19 (1983), 663-675.
  82. J.R. Booker and R.K. Rowe, '1-D consolidation of periodically layered soil', Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Division of ASCE, 109(6) (1983), 1319-1333.
  83. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'Finite layer analysis of layered elastic materials using a flexibility approach, part I – strip loading', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 20 (1984), 1025-1037.
  84. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The time-deflection behaviour of a circular raft of finite flexibility on a deep clay layer', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 8 (1984), 343-357.
  85. R.W. Sharp and J.R. Booker, 'Shakedown of pavements under moving surface loads', Journal of Transportation Engineering ASCE, 110(1) (1984), 1-14.
  86. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'The analysis of deformations caused by loading applied to the walls of a circular tunnel', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 8 (1984), 445-455.
  87. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Elastic consolidation around a lined circular tunnel', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 20(6) (1984), 589-608.
  88. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Deformation analysis for periodically layered soils', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE, 110(2) (1984), 217-230.
  89. J.R. Booker and M.F. Randolph, 'Consolidation of a cross-anisotropic soil medium', Quarterly Journal of Mechanical Applied Mathematics, 37(3) (1984), 479-495.
  90. J.R. Booker and C. Savvidou, 'Consolidation around a spherical heat source', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 20(11/12) (1984), 1079-1090.
  91. J.R. Booker, J.C. Small and N.P. Balaam, 'Application of microcomputers to the analysis of three dimensional problems in geomechanics', in Proceedings of the Conference on Engineering Software for Microcomputers, Venice, Italy, (1984).
  92. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Solutions of some mixed boundary problems in consolidation theory', in Proceedings of the Computational Techniques and Applications Conference, Amsterdam, North Holland, (1984), pp. 742-752.
  93. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, (1984) 'The behaviour of a lined circular tunnel in viscoelastic ground', in Proceedings of the Computational Techniques and Applications Conference, Amsterdam, North Holland, (1984), pp. 753-768.
  94. J.R. Booker, 'Soil structure interaction', in Proceedings of the 4th Australian-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Perth, Australia, (1984), pp. 123-127.
  95. J.R. Booker and C. Savvidou, (1984) 'Consolidation around a heat source', in Proceedings of the 4th Australian-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Perth, Australia, (1984), pp. 551-554.
  96. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Determination of the deformation modulus of rock from tunnel and bore-hole loading tests', in Proceedings of the 4th Australian-New Zealand Geomechanics Conference, Perth, Australia, (1984), pp. 509-513.
  97. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, (1984) 'Steady state response of elastic ground containing a heat source', in Proceedings of the 9th Australian Conference on Mechanical Structural Materials, Sydney, Australia, (1984), pp. 86-91.
  98. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Consolidation of a saturated elastic half space due to fluid extraction from a point sink', in Proceedings of the Engineering Foundation Conference on Understanding the Compaction Phenomena in Subsidence, New Hampshire, USA, (1984), pp. 31-64.
  99. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'A novel technique for the analysis of 1-D pollutant migration', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods for Transient and Coupled Problems, Venice, Italy, (1984), pp. 699-709.
  100. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'Surface deformation of a layered soil deposit due to extraction of water', in Proceedings of the 9th Australian Conference on Mechanical Structural Materials, Sydney, Australia, (1984), pp. 33-38.
  101. P.T. Brown and J.R. Booker, (1984) 'Simulating excavation by finite elements', in Proceedings of the 9th Australian Conference on Mechanical Structural Materials, Sydney, Australia, (1984), pp. 44-47.
  102. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The analysis of pollution migration in non-homogeneous soils', Géotechnique, 34(4) (1984), 601-612.
  103. J.R. Booker, N.P. Balaam and E.H. Davis, 'The behaviour of an elastic non-homogeneous half space. Part 1 – line and point loads', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 9 (1985), 353-367.
  104. J.R. Booker, N.P. Balaam and E.H. Davis, 'The behaviour of an elastic non-homogeneous half space, part 2 – circular and strip footings', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 9 (1985), 369-381.
  105. R.K. Rowe, C.J. Caers, J.R. Booker and V.E. Crooks, 'Pollutant migration through clay soil', in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanical Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, USA, (1985), pp. 1293-1298.
  106. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The use of micro-computers to solve problems in geomechanics using finite layer methods', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, Japan, (1985), pp.1683-1689.
  107. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of foundation behaviour using finite layer methods', in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, San Francisco, USA, (1985), pp. 725-728.
  108. P.T. Brown and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of excavation', Computational Geotechnics, 1 (1985), 207-220.
  109. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The analysis of multiple-contaminant migration through a homogeneous soil', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, Japan, (1985), pp. 581-588.
  110. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, (1985) 'Thermomechanical analysis of some proposed schemes for radioactive waste disposal', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, Japan, (1985), 1249-1256.
  111. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Two-dimensional pollutant migration in soils of finite depth', The Tenth Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics, London, Ontario, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 22 (1985), 429-436.
  112. N.P. Balaam and J.R. Booker, 'The effect of stone column yield on settlement of rigid foundations in stabilized clay', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 9 (1985), 331-334.
  113. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, '1-D Pollutant migration in soils of finite depth', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 111(4) (1985), 479-499.
  114. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of settlement, creep and consolidation using micro-computers', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Nagoya, Japan, (1985), pp. 3-18.
  115. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of layered viscoelastic materials under three-dimensional loading conditions', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 21 (1985), 1709-1727.
  116. I.D. Moore and J.R. Booker, 'Simplified theory for the behaviour of buried flexible cylinders under the influence of uniform hoop compression', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 21(9) (1985), 929-941.
  117. I.D. Moore and J.R. Booker, 'Behaviour of buried flexible cylinders under the influence of non-uniform hoop compression', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 21(9) (1985), 943-956.
  118. J.R. Booker, J.C. Small and J.P. Carter, 'Prediction of subsidence caused by pumping of groundwater', in Proceedings of the 21st Congress of International Associations Hydraulic Research, Melbourne, Australia, (1985), pp. 129-134.
  119. J.R. Booker and C. Savvidou, 'Consolidation around a point heat source', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 9 (1985), 173-184.
  120. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The consolidation of a deep clay stratum subject to an impermeable axisymmetric surface loading', Computational Geotechnics, 1 (1985), 245-261.
  121. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Pollutant transport through clayey soils and underlying aquifers', in Proceedings of the 21st Congress of International Association of Hydraulic Research, Melbourne, Australia, (1985), pp. 160-164.
  122. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The behaviour of an impermeable flexible raft on a deep layer of consolidating soil', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 10 (1986), 311-327.
  123. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of layered elastic materials using a flexibility approach. Part 2 – circular and rectangular loadings', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 23 (1986), 959-978.
  124. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Long term subsidence due to fluid extraction from a saturated, anisotropic, elastic soil mass', Quarterly Journal of Mechanical Applied Mathematics, 39(1) (1986), 85-97.
  125. S.W. Sloan and J.R. Booker, 'Removal of singularities in Tresc and Mohr-Coulomb yield functions', Communications and Applied Numerical Methods, 2 (1986), 173-179.
  126. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Analysis of a point sink embedded in a porous elastic half space', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 10 (1986), 137-150.
  127. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'A finite layer technique for calculating three-dimensional pollutant migration in soil', Géotechnique, 36(2) (1986), 205-214.
  128. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of viscoelastic layered material', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 10 (1986), 415-430.
  129. J.P. Carter, J.R. Booker and S.K. Yeung, 'Cavity expansion in cohesive frictionless soils', Géotechnique, 36(3) (1986), 349-358.
  130. C. Savvidou and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation around a heat source', Transport Institution of. Engineers Australia, Civil Engineering, CE28(1) (1986), 41-44.
  131. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'The behaviour of layered soil or rock containing a decaying heat source', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 10 (1986), 501-519.
  132. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Computer and physical modelling in geotechnical engineering', in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer and Physical Modelling in Geotechnical Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand, (1986), pp. 509-520.
  133. J.R. Booker and R.K. Rowe, 'One-dimensional advective-dispersive transport into a deep layer having a variable surface concentration', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 11 (1987), 131-141.
  134. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Elastic consolidation around a point sink embedded in a half space with anisotropic permeability', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 11(1) (1987), 61-77.
  135. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'An efficient analysis of pollutant migration through soil', Numerical Methods of Transient Coupled Problems, (1987), 13-42.
  136. J.C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'The time-deflection behaviour of a rigid under-reamed anchor in a deep clay layer', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 11(3) (1987), 269-281.
  137. J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Withdrawal of a compressible pore fluid from a point sink in an isotropic elastic half space with anisotropic permeability', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 23(3) (1987), 369-385.
  138. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of coupled thermoelasticity', in Proceedings in the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, (1987), pp. 340-345.
  139. J.R. Booker, J.P. Carter, J.C. Small, P.T. Brown and H.G. Poulos, 'Some recent applications of numerical methods to geotechnical analysis', in Proceedings in the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, (1987), pp. 123-132.
  140. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'A method of computing the consolidation behaviour of layered soils using direct numerical inversion of Laplace transforms', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 11 (1987), 363-380.
  141. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of pumping a compressible pore fluid from a saturated elastic half space', Computational Geotechnical, 4 (1987), 21-42.
  142. D.W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Boundary element analysis of time dependent thermoelasticity', in Proceedings in the Conference on Finite Element Methods in Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, (1987), pp. 346-350.
  143. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'New theoretical models for waste disposal sites with clay liners', Proceedings of the Symposium on Environmental Geotechnics and Problematic Soils and Rocks, Bangkok, Asian Institute of Technology, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1988), 409-419.
  144. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of fully coupled transient thermoelasticity', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering: Theory and Applications, NUMETA87, Swansea, UK, 2 (1987), T25/1.
  145. D.W. Smith, J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, (1987) 'Numerical analysis of linear quasi-static coupled transient thermoelasticity', Computational Techniques and Applications, CTAC-87, Amsterdam, North Holland, pp. 599-609.
  146. C.Savvidou and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation around a spherical heat source with a decaying power output', Computational Geotechnical, 5 (1988), 227-244.
  147. J.R. Booker, 'Application of analytic and semi-analytic techniques to geotechnical analysis', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 23-36.
  148. D.W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Boundary element analysis of linear quasi-static coupled transient thermoelasticity', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 1017-1022.
  149. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Consolidation of layered soils under time dependent loading', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 593-597.
  150. J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Finite layer analysis of layered pavements subjected to horizontal loading', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 2109-2113.
  151. J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Geomechanical application of fully coupled transient thermoelasticity', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 541-547.
  152. R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Modelling of contaminant movement through fractured or jointed media', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 855-862.
  153. M.F. Randolph and J.R. Booker, 'The effect of anisotropy on consolidation in a soil layer', in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Geomechanics, Innsbruck, Austria, (1988), pp. 689-696.
  154. C. Savvidou and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation around a heat source buried deep in a porous thermo- elastic medium with anisotropic flow properties', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 13 (1989), 75-90.
  155. M.S. Rahman and J.R. Booker, 'Pollutant migration from deeply buried repositories', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 13 (1989), 37-51.
  156. J. P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of coupled thermoelasticity', Computational. Structures, 31(1) (1989), 73-80.
  157. J. R. Booker, J.P. Carter, J.C. Small, P.T. Brown and H.G. Poulos, 'Some recent applications of numerical methods to geotechnical analysis', Computational Structures, 31(1) (1989), 81-92
  158. A. M. Britto, C. Savvidou, D.V. Maddocks, M.J. Gunn and J.R. Booker, 'Numerical and centrifuge modelling of coupling heat flow and consolidation around hot cylinders buried in clay', Géotechnique, 39(1) (1989), 13-25.
  159. M. S. Rahman, J.R. Booker and C.W. Hwang, 'A boundary integral formulation for modelling pollutant migration in groundwater', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solving Groundwater Problems with Models, Indianapolis, USA, (1989).
  160. R. K. Rowe, A. Hammoud and J.R. Booker, 'The effect of multi-directional matrix diffusion on contaminant transport through fractured systems', in Contaminant Transport in Groundwater, (Rotterdam, 1989), pp. 259-266.
  161. D. W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Boundary integral analysis of transient thermoelasticity', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 13 (1989), 283-302.
  162. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'A semi-analytical model for contaminant migration in a regular two or three-dimensional fractured network: conservative contaminants', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 13(5) (1989), 531-550.
  163. J. C. Small and J.R. Booker, 'The effects of a decaying heat source in a rectangular-shaped rock repository', Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 111 (1989), 262-270.
  164. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of contaminant transport through fractured rock at an Ontario landfill', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, (NUMOG III, 1989), pp. 383-391.
  165. J. R. Booker and D.W. Smith, 'Behaviour of a heat source in a fully coupled saturated thermoelastic soil', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, (NUMOG III, 1989), pp. 399-407.
  166. I. D. Moore and J.R. Booker, 'Geometrically nonlinear analysis of buried cylinders', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, (NUMOG III, 1989), pp. 716-724.
  167. J. P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Sudden excavation of a long circular tunnel in elastic ground', International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science Geomechanics, 27(2) (1990), 129-132.
  168. J. R. Booker and R.J. Best, 'Analysis of layered aquifer systems', in Institution of Engineers Australia Conference on Hydraulics in Civil Engineering, Sydney, NSW, (1990), pp. 1-5.
  169. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'A semi-analytic model for contaminant migration in a regular two or three dimensional fracture network: reactive contaminants', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 14 (1990), 401-425.
  170. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Contaminant migration through fractured till into an underlying aquifer', Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 27(4) (1990), 484-495.
  171. J. P. Carter, H. Alehossein, J.R. Booker and N.P. Balaam, 'Elastic solution for tunnels near excavations', Institution of Engineers Australia Civil Transportation, CE32(2) (1990).
  172. J. Y. Lai and J.R. Booker, 'A residual force finite element approach to soil-structure interaction analysis', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 15 (1991), 181-203.
  173. J. Y. Lai and J.R. Booker, 'Application of discrete Fourier series to the finite element stress analysis of axi-symmetric solids', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 31 (1991), 619-647.
  174. J. R. Booker, 'Analytic methods in geomechanics', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 1 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991), pp. 3-14.
  175. W. S. Kaggwa and J.R. Booker, 'Model of cyclic behaviour of calcareous sand and its application to wave loading', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 1 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991), pp. 753-758.
  176. C. Savvidou and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation around a heat source buried at a finite depth below the surface of a deep clay stratum', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 2 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991), pp. 1085-1089.
  177. J. R. Booker, R.J. Best and B.C. Burman, 'Fully coupled finite element flow modelling of layered aquifer systems with compressible aquitards', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 2 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991), pp. 1535-1540.
  178. G. Beer, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter (eds.), 'Computer methods and advances in geomechanics', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 1 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991).
  179. G. Beer, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, eds. 'Computer methods and advances in geomechanics', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 2 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991).
  180. G. Beer, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, eds. 'Computer methods and advances in geomechanics', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Cairns, Australia, 3 (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1991).
  181. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Pollutant migration through liner underlain by fractured soil', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 117(12) (1991), 1902-1919.
  182. W. S. Kaggwa, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Residual strains in calcareous sand due to irregular cyclic loading', Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 117(2) (1991), 201-219.
  183. C. Savvidou and J.R. Booker, 'Consolidation of a deep homogeneous clay stratum subjected to a surface temperature change', in Proceedings of the 9th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanical Foundation Engineering, 1 (1992), pp. 425-428.
  184. S. W. Sloan and J.R. Booker, 'Integration of Tresc and Mohr-Coulomb constitutive relations in plane strain elastoplasticity', International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, 33 (1992), 163-196.
  185. A. M. Britto, C. Savvidou, M.J. Gunn and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of the coupled heat flow and consolidation around hot buried objects', Soils Foundation, 32(1) (1992), 13-25.
  186. D. W. Smith, R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Contaminant transport and non-equilibrium sorption', in Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Numerical Models in Geomechanics, (NUMOG IV, 1992), pp. 509-518.
  187. D. W. Smith, M. Dimmock, M. Lambert and J.R. Booker, 'Time dependent oxygen sag in streams', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering, Singapore, eds. A. A. Tay and K.V. Lay, (1992), pp. 624-629.
  188. C. J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'Boundary element analysis of contaminant transport from waste repositories', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Methods in Engineering, Singapore, eds. A. A. Tay and K. V. Lay, (1992), pp. 1285-1291.
  189. H.S. Yu, J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of the dilatometer test in undrained clay', in Predictive Soil Mechanics, Proceedings of the Wroth Memorial Symposium, 1992, Oxford, eds. G. T. Houlsby and A. N. Schofield, (Thomas Telford, London, England, 1992), pp. 783-795.
  190. H. Alehossein J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Finite element analysis of rigid footings on jointed rock', in COMPLAS III, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Computational Plasticity Fundamentals and Applications, Swansea, UK, 1 (1992), pp. 935-946.
  191. J. C. Small and J.R. Booker, (1992) 'Finite layer methods in geotechnical analysis', in Advanced Geotechnical Analyses Developments in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, eds P. K. Banajee and R. Butterfield, 4 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Holland 1992), pp. 273-329.
  192. J. P. Hsi, J.R. Booker and J.C. Small, 'Transient and steady-state pressures on structures due to cyclic wave loading', Computational Geotechnical, 14 (1992), 85-101.
  193. D. W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Green's function for a fully coupled thermoporoelastic matenal', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 17(3) (1993), 139-164.
  194. D. W. Smith, R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'The analysis of pollution migration through soil with linear time dependent sorption', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 17(4) (1993), 139-164.
  195. R. J. Best, J.R. Booker and C. Mackie, 'Analysis of contaminant transport', in Proceedings of the Conference on Geotechnical Management of Waste and Contamination, Sydney March 1993, eds. R. Fell, A. Phillips and C. M. Gerrard (1993), pp. 39-58.
  196. C. J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'Boundary element analysis of contaminant transport in fractured porous media', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 17(7) (1993), 471-492.
  197. D. W. Smith, R.K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Decontamination of a polluted aquifer using an interception/sorption trench: dispersion-advection analysis with linear hereditary sorption', Computational Geotechnical, 15 (1993), 163-186.
  198. D. W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Contaminant transport through waste used as reclamation material' in Proceedings of the IEAust Hydrology and Water Resources Conference, Newcastle, Australia, (1993).
  199. D. W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Decontamination of a polluted aquifer by interception and sorption', in Proceedings of the Conference on Environmental Geotechnics, Paris, France, (1993).
  200. J. R. Booker and C.J. Leo, 'A Fourier-Laplace transform boundary integral equation method for analysis of contaminant leakage from waste repositories in porous medium', in Proceedings of the 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Computational Methods, Sydney, Australia, (1993).
  201. D. W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Applications of boundary integral analysis involving thermoporoelastic materials', in Proceedings of the 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Computational Methods, Sydney, Australia, (1993).
  202. J. P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of anisotropic rock masses', Application of computer methods in rock mechanics, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Applications of Computer Methods in Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Xian, China, 1 (1993), pp. 25-42.
  203. H. N. Seneviratne, J.P. Carter, D.W. Airey and J.R. Booker, 'A review of models for predicting the thermomechanical behaviour on soft clays', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 17 (1993), 715-733.
  204. E. E. Hellawell, C. Savvidou and J.R. Booker, 'Clean up operations in contaminated land', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Management, Geo-water and Engineering Aspects, Wollongong, Australia, eds. R. N. Chowdhury and M. Sivakumar, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1993), pp. 357-362.
  205. J. R. Booker, 'Analytic and semi analytic methods for the analysis of contaminant migration in soils', in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Associated Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, May 1994, eds. H. J. Siriwardane and M. M. Zaman, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1994), pp. 3-19.
  206. J. R. Booker and C.J. Leo, (1994). 'Boundary element analysis of diffusive contaminant transport with linear competitive sorption in porous media', in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Associated Computational Methods in Advanced Geomechanics, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, May 1994, eds. H. J. Siriwardane and M. M. Zaman, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1994).
  207. J. R. Booker and C.J. Leo, 'A boundary element method for analysis of contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media', in Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, Edmonton, Canada, ed. W. D. Carrier III (1994), pp. 147-152.
  208. J. R. Booker and C.J. Leo, 'Contaminant leakage from deeply buried cylindrical repositories', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 18 (1994), 565-580.
  209. H. N. Seneviratne, J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Analysis of fully coupled thermomechanical behaviour around a rigid cylindrical heat source buried in clay', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 18 (1994), 177-203.
  210. M. S. Rahman, Khalid El-Zahaby and J.R. Booker, 'A semi-analytical method for the wave-induced seabed response', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 18 (1994), 213-236.
  211. R. K. Rowe, R.M. Quigley, and J.R. Booker, Clayey Barrier Systems for Waste Disposal Facilities, (E & F.N. Spon, Chapman & Hall, 1995), 400 pp.
  212. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'A finite layer technique for modelling complex landfill history', Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 32 (1995), 660-676.
  213. M. A. Lav, J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'The effect of fissures on the bearing capacity of clays', in Proceedings of the 14th Australian Conference on Mechanical Structural Material, Hobart, Australia, (1995).
  214. J. R. Booker, 'Application of plasticity theory to Geotechnical engineering', Part I of E.H. Davis Memorial Lecture, Australian Geomechanics, 29 (December 1995), 20-31.
  215. D. W. Smith and J.R. Booker, 'Boundary element analysis of linear thermoelastic consolidation', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 20 (1996), 457-488.
  216. J. R. Booker, 'Heat flow and contaminant migration in soils'. Part II of E.H. Davis Memorial Lecture, Australian Geomechanics, 29 (June 1996), 14-36.
  217. I. A. Hosking, R.J. Best, J.R. Booker and B.A. Stephens, 'Using a site-specific, risk-based approach to design and reduce the cost of landfill liners', in WMA Waste Management Conference, Sydney (1996), pp. 567-573.
  218. A. Verruijt and J.R. Booker, 'Surface settlements due to deformation of a tunnel in an elastic half plane', Technical Note, Géotechnique, 46(4) (1996), 753-756.
  219. C. J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'A time-stepping finite-element method for analysis of contaminant transport in fractured porous media', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 20 (1996), 847-864.
  220. M. A. Lav, J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'The bearing capacity of clays weakened by fissures', in Proceedings of the 7th Australian-New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Adelaide, Australia, eds. M. B. Jaksa, W. Kaggwa and D. A. Cameron (1996).
  221. J. Singh, D.W. Airey, J.P. Carter and J.R. Booker, 'Model studies of the bearing capacity of an orthogonally jointed medium', in Proceedings of the 1st International Forum on Distinct Element Analysis, Berkeley, California, USA, (1996).
  222. R. F. Stark and J.R. Booker, 'Surface displacements of a non-homogeneous elastic half-space subjected to uniform surface tractions. Part I: Loading on arbitrarily shaped areas', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 21 (1997), 361-378.
  223. R. F. Stark and J.R. Booker, 'Surface displacements of a non-homogeneous elastic half-space subjected to uniform surface tractions. Part II: Loading on rectangular shaped areas', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 21 (1997), 379-395.
  224. J. R. Booker and C.J. Leo, 'A boundary integral equation formulation of contaminant transport in fractured and non-fractured porous media', in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on International Association on Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, Wuhan, China, ed. Yuan, J.-X., (A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam), 2 (1997), pp. 1195-1200.
  225. A. Elzein and J.R. Booker 'Groundwater pollution by organic chemicals with non-equilibrium partitioning in two-dimensional stratified media', in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Geology and the Environment, Athens, Greece, (1997).
  226. A. Elzein and J.R. Booker, 'A three-dimensional model of contaminant transport in non-homogeneous saturated media', in GeoEnvironment 97, Proceedings of the 1st Australian-New Zealand Conference on Environmental Geotechnics, (Australian Geomechanics Society and New Zealand Geotechnical Society, Melbourne, Australia, 1997).
  227. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Keynote paper: Recent advances in modelling contaminant impact due to clogging', in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics, Wuhan, China, November, 1 (1997), pp. 43-56.
  228. A. Verruijt and J.R. Booker, 'Reply to discussion on: Surface settlements due to deformation of a tunnel in an elastic half plane', Géotechnique, 48(5) (1996), 709-713.
  229. J. R. Booker and X. Zheng, 'Application of the theory of plasticity to the analysis of bearing capacity problem in fissured materials', Fracture in Rocks, ed. M.H. Aliabadi, (Computational Mechanics Publications, WIT Press, Southampton, 1998).
  230. C. J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'A boundary element method for analysis of contaminant transport in fractured and non-fractured porous media', Computer Geotechnics, 23 (1998), 165-181.
  231. J. C. Wang and J.R. Booker, 'A Laplace transform finite element method for the analysis of contaminant transport in porous media', in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, Beijing, China, (1998).
  232. A. H. Elzein, and J.R. Booker, 'A time-dependent three-dimensional model of stress state of soil and rock near heat sources', in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Environmental Geotechnological Global Sustainment Development, Boston, USA, (1998).
  233. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Modelling impacts due to multiple landfill cells and clogging of leachate collection systems', Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(1) (1998), 1-14.
  234. C. J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'A boundary element method for analysis of contaminant transport in porous media I: Homogeneous porous media', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 23 (1999), 1681-1700.
  235. X. Zheng, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Bearing capacity factor Ng for vertically and horizontally fissured soil and jointed rocks', in Proceedings of the 8th Australian-New Zealand Conference in Geotechnics, Hobart, Australia, (Australian Geomechanics Society, Canberra, 1999), pp. 353-359.
  236. C. J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'A boundary element method for analysis of contaminant transport in media. II: non-homogeneous porous media', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 23 (1999), 1701-1716.
  237. A. H. Elzein, and J.R. Booker, 'Groundwater pollution by organic compounds: a two-dimensional analysis of contaminant transport in stratified porous media with multiple sources of non-equilibrium partitioning', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 23 (1999), 1717-1732.
  238. A. H. Elzein and J.R. Booker, 'Groundwater pollution by organic compounds: a three-dimensional boundary element solution of contaminant transport equations in stratified porous media with multiple non-equilibrium partitioning', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 23 (1999), 1733-1762.
  239. J. C. Wang and J.R. Booker, 'A Fourier Laplace transform finite element method (FLTFEM) for the analysis of contaminant transport in porous media', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 23 (1999), 1763-1796.
  240. C.J. Leo and J.R. Booker, 'Semi-analytic solutions of contaminant transport from deeply buried cylindrical repository surrounded by zoned media', International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 23 (1999), 1797-1815.
  241. J. C. Wang, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Analysis of the remediation of a contaminated aquifer by a multi-well system', Computer Geotechnics, 25 (1999), 171-189.
  242. X. Zheng, J.R. Booker and J.P. Carter, 'Limit analysis methods for bearing capacity of fissured materials', International Journal of Solids and Structures, 37 (2000), 1211-1243.
  243. A. Verruijt and J.R. Booker, 'Complex variable analysis of Mindlin's tunnel problem', Developments in Theoretical Geomechanics, in Proceedings of the John Booker Memorial Symposium, Sydney 2000, eds. D. W. Smith and J.P. Carter, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000), pp. 3-22.
  244. R. J. Best and J.R. Booker, 'Groundwater flow in layered aquifer systems', Developments in Theoretical Geomechanics, in Proceedings of the John Booker Memorial Symposium, Sydney 2000, eds. D. W. Smith and J.P. Carter, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000), pp. 511-523.
  245. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, 'Theoretical solutions for calculating leakage through composite liner systems', Developments in Theoretical Geomechanics, in Proceedings of the John Booker Memorial Symposium, Sydney 2000, eds. D.W. Smith and J.P. Carter, (A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 2000), pp. 589-602.
  246. M. Zaman, G. Gioda, and J.R. Booker, (eds.), Modeling in Geomechanics, (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 2000).
  247. R. K. Rowe and J.R. Booker, ' Chapter 19: A practical modelling technique for assessing potential contaminant impacts due to landfills', in Modeling in Geomechanics, eds. M. Zaman, G. Gioda and J.R. Booker, (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 2000), pp. 493-504.
  248. J. R. Booker and X. Zheng, 'Chapter 14: Application of the theory of classical plasticity to the analysis of the stress distribution in wedges of a perfectly frictional material', in Modeling in Geomechanics, eds. M. Zaman, G. Gioda and J.R. Booker, (John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 2000), pp. 329-358.

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